Mini-Project #4

  • To analyze the effectiveness of common antibiotics.
  • To determine the type and category of common antibiotics.
  • To identify brand names of common antibiotics.
  • To effectively develop a creative project to best organize and display the information collected on common antibiotics.

Many cures for infectious diseases prior to the beginning of the twentieth century were based on medicinal folklore. Cures for infection in ancient Chinese medicine using plants with antibiotic-like properties began to be described over 2,500 years ago. Many other ancient cultures, including the ancient Egyptians and ancient Greeks used molds and plants to treat infections. In the 17th century Cinchona bark was a widely effective treatment of malaria, which is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Scientific endeavors to understand the science behind what caused these diseases, the development of synthetic antibiotic chemotherapy, the isolation of the natural antibiotics marked milestones in antibiotic development.
Originally known as antibiosis, antibiotics were drugs that had actions against bacteria. The term antibiosis, which means "against life," was introduced by the French bacteriologist Vuillemin. It is used as a descriptive name of the phenomenon exhibited by these drugs. (Antibiosis was first described in 1877 in bacteria when Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch observed that an airborne bacillus could inhibit the growth of Bacillus anthracis). These drugs were later renamed antibiotics by Selman Waksman, an American microbiologist in 1942.
The highest division is between antibiotics which are bactericidal and those, which are bacteriostatic. Bactericidals kill bacteria directly where bacteriostatics prevent them from dividing. However, these classifications are based on laboratory behavior; in practice, both of these are capable of ending a bacterial infection.

There are 50 total possible points for the final product. The following rubric will be used to assess the quality and creativity of the final project.
List of Antibiotics (Generic Names)

1. Amoxicillin
2. Azithromycin
3. Bacitracin
4. Cefadroxil
5. Cefalexin (Cephalexin)
6. Ceftin
7. Ceftobiprole
8. Ciprofloxacin
9. Clarithromycin
10. Cloxacillin
11. Colistin
12. Dirithromycin
13. Doxycycline
14. Erythromycin
15. Kanamycin
16. Levofloxacin
17. Ofloxacin
18. Penicillin
19. Streptomycin
20. Telavancin
21. Telithromycin
22. Tetracycline
23. Vancomycin

Suggested Resources
· http://wfxsearch.webfeat.org/wfsearch/menu?cid=11829

· Online Database Subscriptions -Search the three HEALTH subscription databases and one of the SCIENCE DATABASES listed below which contain information useful for this project. Search for your disease in these databases at www.umreads.org → High School Library → Reference Material

Consumer Health Complete (POWER Library)
Hint - The Fact Sheets have concise understandable information on the diseases.
Student Resource Center Health (Gale)
Hint - The World of Health articles are concise yet understandable
Teen Health & Wellness
Hint--look under Diseases, Infections, and Conditions--Infections and Viruses

Science Online
This database is always found in the SCIENCE block on the Library Home Page
· Images
Images found in the databases are copyright allowable because we pay a license to use them and their content.
Use the links on the FINDING IMAGES box on the Library Homepage for more Fair Use and Creative Commons images.
Be cautious of Google images--are you transforming them? Where did they come from? What was the original intent? What is your intent?
· Free Web - Credible websites suggested by your teachers.
Centers for Disease Control
National Institute of Health
World Health Organization(WHO)

Topics to Research

1. Brand names
2. Antibiotic Class
3. Common Uses
4. Side effects (??)
5. Biochemistry
a. Chemical Structure
b. Chemical Formula
6. Pharmaceutical
a. Administering Drugs
b. Spectrum (broad, narrow, specific)
c. Mode of Action
7. Resources (in MLA format)
a. Minimum of 2
b. Wikipedia is not a source
c. Images must include a web address

Production and presentation of the project is left to student choice for this project. Students are to choose a project format that can best creatively display and depict information regarding their antibiotic. The list below is suggested project formats:
A. Written ComicLife
B. Verbal PowerPoint
C. Written Word Essay
D. GarageBand Podcast
E. Wikispace Webpage
F. Written Word Pamphlet